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Interesting facts

Grain dictionary


The wild species of cultivated wheat originates from Asia Minor. Wheat is mainly used for making bread flour. There are two fundamental types of wheat: common wheat and durum wheat. Durum wheat is processed into semolina and pasta. Common wheat is the most important grain for bread, because of its high gluten content which absorbs water and causes dough to rise. Bread therefore bakes well and is given a nice consistency.


For many decades, this robust and simple grain was forgotten, largely due to the fact that its narrow husks are more complex to process. Today, spelt and unripe spelt grain are experiencing a comeback, above all, as organic food.


Rye was brought to Europe from the Caucasus region: it is easy to maintain and doesn’t have any specific requirements when it comes to soil or weather. Rye flour retains its moisture much longer than wheat flour thanks to its higher starch content. It is therefore mixed in with other bread products and bakes long-lasting sourdough bread, brown bread and pumpernickel. Grain brandy is distilled from rye, and it is used as a coffee substitute (malt coffee) as well as valuable fattening feed for cattle.


Oats were originally brought to Europe from Eurasia as weeds. They are healthy and easy to digest. Roasted oats are used to make rolled oats, porridge or oatmeal. Oats are used in muesli, pastries and desserts. Many food packages, for example, crisp and coffee packets, are coated with oatmeal on the inside to prevent food from spoiling.


Barley is one of the oldest crops in existence. It was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Greeks and Chinese. Its grains are either ground into bread flour or hulled and polished to be used as pearl barley in soups or porridges. A considerable share of barley also serves as grain feed in poultry farming. Malting barley is used for distilling whisky, gin, brandy and beer.

Flour recommendation – wheat flour

Heimatsmühle Type 405 Wheat Flour

Our classic white wheat flour for pastries, cakes (especially sponge cake), pies, sauce thickening, shortcrust pastry, biscuits and crepes.

Heimatsmühle Type 550 Wheat Flour

This flour is ideal for making pizza, light-coloured bread (white bread or bread for toasting), leavened doughs, stollen, tart dough, biscuits, puff pastry and much more.

Heimatsmühle Type 550 S-Fit

Our coarse-grain, fluffy and aromatic wheat flour is extra strong and well suited for making spirits, bread, bread rolls and pastry goods.

Heimatsmühle Type 1050 Wheat Flour

It is ideal for making wholemeal bread and dark-brown bread, but it also tastes delicious in savoury pizzas and quiches.

Heimatsmühle Wholemeal Flour

Thanks to its very fine texture, our wholemeal flour is ideal for making wheat bread, mixed wheat bread and wheat bread rolls.

Heimatsmühle Coarse-grain Wheat Spätzle Flour

This flour is clearly our no. 1 choice for making spätzle and other noodles made from flour. It can also be used to make dough for strudel or dumplings as well as for thickening sauces or breading food.

Tipo 00 Pizza Flour

This refined product is well suited for making Italian baked goods such as pizza, savoury pies and pastries. It is also excellent for making Mediterranean specialties such as ciabatta and focaccia.

Flour recommendation – spelt flour

Heimatsmühle Type 630 Spelt Flour

This flour can be used just like Heimatsmühle Type 550 Wheat Flour. It stands out thanks to its distinct nutty flavour and tastes especially delicious in waffles.

Heimatsmühle Type 1050 Spelt Flour

It is perfect for spelt bread, spelt bread rolls and dumplings.

Heimatsmühle Wholegrain Spelt Flour

Wholegrain spelt flour is ideally suited for making spelt bread and spelt bread rolls.

Heimatsmühle Coarse-grain Spelt Flour

This flour is clearly our no. 1 choice for making spätzle and other noodles made from spelt flour.

Flour recommendation – rye flour

Heimatsmühle Type 1150 Rye Flour

We recommend using Type 1150 Rye Flour to make gingerbread, mixed bread, rye bread rolls and rye bread.

Heimatsmühle Wholegrain Rye Flour

This dark rye flour is ideal for making rye bread.

Heimatsmühle Wholegrain Spelt Flour

Wholegrain spelt flour is ideally suited for making spelt bread and spelt bread rolls.

Heimatsmühle Coarse-grain Spelt Flour

This flour is clearly our no. 1 choice for making spätzle and other noodles made from spelt flour.



Grist is the first stage in grinding down grain. It hasn’t yet been completely separated from its husk which is rich in vitamins. Grist is well suited for making savoury, robustly flavoured breads or also for fresh muesli.


Semolina is well suited for making desserts, but also for making soups, porridges or dumplings. Soft wheat semolina is used for desserts and porridge, whereas durum or wholegrain semolina is used for making hearty dishes.

Shelf life

We recommend storing flour in a cool and dry place to guarantee the best shelf life – at best in a tin with a tight-fitting lid stored in a dark place, away from sunlight. Do not mix fresh flour with older flour. Wholegrain flour should preferably be used when fresh, which is why we recommend always buying smaller quantities. The general rule of thumb is: flour types with a lower grade can be stored longer than higher-grade flour types.

Organic flour

Our most popular types of flour are also available as organic flour. The grain for our organic flour is sourced directly from organic farmland.

Extraction rate

The extraction rate shows how much flour is produced from the grain to be processed. If 100 kg of grain are ground and the miller receives 75 kg of flour, the extraction rate is 75%. Different extraction rates result in different kinds of flour, which are sometimes also referred to as “flour types”. Flour with a high extraction is classified as wholegrain flour. The type numbers indicate how many milligrams of minerals are contained in 100 grams of each flour. A flour sample is incinerated at 900°C to determine the type. The mineral components are left behind. For example, 100 grams of Type 405 Wheat Flour contains an average of 405 milligrams of minerals. The flour type number also indicates the proportion of finely ground particles. The higher the type number, the higher the content of the surface layer particles – and the darker the flour as a rule. In addition to minerals, the husk particles contain a particularly large amount of vitamins and fibre. When kept properly, light-coloured flour lasts up from 1 to 1.5 years, and dark-coloured flour lasts anywhere from six to eight months.